Morphine is a classic representative of analgesics of mu- opioid receptor agonists. Thanks to the ability to quickly arrest the pain syndrome and change the emotional coloring of pain, Morphine is considered in Singapore as the most effective analgesic.
Morphine is used as an analgesic for:
- Injuries and diseases, accompanied by severe pain (such as malignant neoplasms, myocardial infarction).
- Preparation for surgery and in the postoperative period.
- Insomnia, associated with severe pain.
- Acute cardiovascular insufficiency.
The action mechanism of this opioid is based on the violation of pain impulses transmission at various levels of the central nervous system. Morphine selectively suppresses the centers of the brain, which contribute to the perception and reproduction of pain.
The drug reduces pain while maintaining complete consciousness, weakens the feeling of hunger and fatigue, and eliminates negative mental emotions (depression, fear).
After the introduction of the opioid, a decrease in motor activity is observed, attention is weakened and drowsiness sets in. Morphine suppresses the cough center of the brain, so it is prescribed for chest injuries and for pulmonary hemorrhage.
Low doses of Morphine selectively depress the respiration center, which helps to reduce the frequency of breathing. The use of analgesic causes of the eye pupils narrowing, increases the tone of the vessels and slows the heart rate.
Morphine can be purchased at many pharmacies in Singapore in the form of:
- Extended release and instant release tablets and capsules.
- Solution for injection (Morphine Hydrochloride, Morphine Sulfate).
Since the use of an opioid can cause euphoria, which is the main cause of painful predilection, Morphine is included in the list of narcotic substances in most countries of the world, including Singapore.
The opioid analgesic is dispensed from retail and online pharmacies by prescription. To get a prescription for Morphine in Singapore, people should consult a qualified doctor, who has the right to prescribe opioids.
After the acquisition of Morphine, it is recommended to carefully read the dosage regimen of the analgesic and keep its instruction for use.
It should be noted that prolonged administration of the opioid leads to a decrease in GABA in the brain and a decrease in the concentration of endogenous histamine. This can contribute to the development of histamine-like reactions (urticaria, itching, bronchospasm) and adverse reactions.
A full list of possible side effects that Morphine can cause are available in the drug’s instruction for use.
For the treatment of chronic pain of oncological genesis, it is advisable to buy Morphine in the form of extended release tablets. In Singapore, oral forms of Morphine are the most popular.
Morphine tablets and capsules are easy to use. The analgesic effect develops in 10-25 minutes and lasts about 4-5 hours. The effect of extended-release formulation of Morphine can last up to 12 hours.
A single dose of Morphine varies from 10 to 100 mg. The recommended daily dose is 400 mg of Morphine per day. In special cases, patients can be prescribed a higher daily dose.
Oral forms of Morphine that are sold in the pharmacies of Singapore, are available in a variety of dosages – 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg, 60 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg and 120 mg. The variety of doses produced is very convenient for the selection and correction of the dose.
If you bought Morphine in the form of extended-release capsules or tablets, you should know that they are taken whole. They can not be divided, as this reduces the effectiveness of the drug.
In cases where, for any reason, the patient can not use the oral forms of Morphine, he can buy Morphine in the form of a solution for injection to effectively cope with the pain syndrome.
In Singapore, Morphine injections are dispensed from pharmacies with a prescription. Morphine injection are available for sale in the following dosage strength:
- 5 mg/mL;
- 10 mg/mL;
- 25 mg/mL;
- 50 mg/mL;
- 100 mg/mL.
Morphine injection forms can be administered to patients with epidural, intrathecal, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous injection. When switching from oral administration of Morphine to parenteral administration, the analgesic activity is the same for both routes.
With parenteral administration of Morphine (especially intravenously), the patient may experience respiratory depression, so it is necessary to monitor his condition and, if necessary, provide respiratory support.
When administered subcutaneously, a single dose of Morphine should not exceed 20 mg. The recommended daily dose of the analgesic is 50 mg.
When Morphine injections are used, it is usually possible to avoid some of the side effects that the oral forms of the opioid can cause.
Most often, at the beginning of treatment, the patient is drowsy, nauseous and dizzy. Against the background of a violation of the gastrointestinal tract motility, vomiting and constipation are possible. For the treatment of constipation, patients are prescribed laxatives.
The most serious side effects can be caused by an overdose of Morphine. Depression of consciousness and breathing, deep depression often develop due to non-compliance with the dosing regimen.
Today, Morphine is recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of pain in cancer patients for several reasons:
- It provides the best analgesic effect.
- It is effective in the treatment of severe acute and chronic pain.
- It is available in widely varying dosages.
- It changes the emotional coloring of pain.
All these advantages contribute to the fact that Morphine remains one of the most effective opioid analgesics in Singapore today.