To get rid of fungal infections (shingles, dermatomycosis, seborrheic dermatitis, etc.), people need a reliable and effective remedy, such as Ketoconazole. Singapore Pharmaceutical Market provides an opportunity to buy several Ketoconazole-based drugs, which can be used in antifungal therapy.
Ketoconazole is an antimycotic from the group of imidazoles. The mechanism of its therapeutic action is based on the violation of the permeability of the cell wall of fungi. As a result Ketoconazole action, fungi lose their ability to reproduce and eventually die.
Ketoconazole has a wide range of antifungal activity. The drug inhibits the growth and development of fungi in concentrations 25-30 times less, than other antifungal drugs.
After oral administration, Ketoconazole is rapidly and completely absorbed. The maximum concentration in the blood plasma is reached in 1-2 hours after the ingestion. The half-life of Ketoconazole is biphasic: the first phase lasts 2 hours, the second – 8 hours. When applied locally, Ketoconazole does not provide any systemic effects.
For antifungal therapy, the patient can choose one of the four dosage forms of Ketoconazole:
- cream of 2%
- ointment of 2%
- shampoo of 2%
- tablets of 200 mg
In the best pharmacies of Singapore, Ketoconazole is only sold with a prescription of the attending physician. If you use the services of one of the online pharmacies, you can buy Ketoconazole without a prescription.
Ketoconazole cream or ointment should be applied to the affected skin area 1-2 times a day. Depending on the etiology and severity of the fungal infection, the duration of treatment with local forms of Ketoconazole can be 2 to 6 weeks.
Ketoconazole shampoo is indicated for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis and shingles. To reduce the severity of the fungal infections symptoms, it is enough to apply shampoo once a day with an obligatory foam application for 3-5 minutes before rinsing. Antifungal shampoo therapy with Ketoconazole can take 3 days to 4 weeks.
When local forms of Ketoconazole are applied to the skin, the therapeutic concentrations persist inside and on the surface of the epidermis within 3 days after the drug withdrawal.
Ketoconazole tablets should be used in two cases:
- when local antifungal agents (cream, ointment, shampoo) were ineffective;
- when the patient is prone to fungal infection, the treatment of which requires systemic therapy (for example, systemic candidiasis).
Ketoconazole tablets should be taken daily during meals. According to mycological research, held in Singapore, Ketoconazole is better absorbed after the consumption of fatty foods, than on an empty stomach. An acidic medium is necessary for a complete absorption of oral Ketoconazole. Therefore, antimycotics are poorly absorbed in patients with achlorhydria, as well as in concomitant administration with drugs that reduce the gastric acidity.
The dosage of Ketoconazole tablets is:
- for children older than 2 years: starting from 3.3 mg per kilogram of weight daily;
- for adults: 200-400 mg per day, in a single intake.
When carrying out the antifungal therapy in children, it should be remembered that Ketoconazole shows the same therapeutic efficacy in doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. In antifungal therapy, it is advisable to use a lower dosage, which will reduce the likelihood of side effects.
The average duration of the antifungal therapy is six months. The use of Ketoconazole should continue until negative results of microbiological studies confirm eradication of the fungal infection.
There is not enough clinical evidence to confirm the safety of the antimycotic for pregnant women. Therefore, according to the recommendations of the Dermatological Society of Singapore, Ketoconazole can be taken by future mothers only in extreme cases, with intolerance to other antifungal drugs.
Reasons to buy and use Ketoconazole-based drugs:
- suppresses not only the growth of fungal pathogens of the infection, but also removes the symptoms of inflammation and itching;
- has high antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-seborrheic activity;
- forms for topical application retain their effectiveness in the presence of Surface Active Agents (Surfactants) on the skin.
Ketoconazole is the first broad-spectrum antimycotic that has revolutionized the treatment of fungal infections. This antimycotic has made a significant contribution to the therapy of several serious fungal infections – deep mycoses, candidiasis and dermatophytosis.
The first drug, based on Ketoconazole, was the shampoo under the brand name Nizoral. The new drug was synthesized by researchers from the pharmaceutical company Janssen Pharmaceutica (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson) in 1976. Five years later, after the first publication on the positive anti-seborrheic effect of Ketoconazole, the shampoo was introduced into the global pharmaceutical market.
The pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson obtained a marketing authorization for the sale of Ketoconazole in Singapore on May 13, 1988. The first antifungal drug, which appeared on the Singapore pharmaceutical market, was Nizoral cream.
Currently, Ketoconazole is sold in Singapore pharmacies under such brands, as Antanazol, Ninazol, Beatoconazole, Kezoral, Dezor, Formyco, Nitozol, Sebizole, Pristinex, Phytoral, Yucomy and Sunazol.
Singaporean suppliers of the antimycotic include such pharmaceutical companies, as Goldplus Universal, Sunward, Euro Asia Medico, Zyfas, Pharmaforte, Beacons Pharmaceuticals, Apex, Naina Mohamed & Sons Private, Dksh, Yung Shin, Joyson Pte, Ccm Pharmaceuticals and Drug Houses Of Australia.
Despite the wide variety of antifungal agents in Singapore, Ketoconazole still holds the leading position among the most prescribed drugs for the treatment of many fungal infections. At present, no cases of fungal resistance to Ketoconazole have been reported.